Common disorders, including diabetes and Parkinson's disease, are caused by a combination of environmental factors and genetic susceptibility. However, defining the mechanisms underlying gene-environment interactions has been challenging due to the lack of a suitable experimental platform. Using pancreatic β-like cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), we discovered that a commonly used pesticide, propargite, induces pancreatic β-cell death, a pathological hallmark of diabetes. Screening a panel of diverse hPSC-derived cell types we extended this observation to a similar susceptibility in midbrain dopamine neurons, a cell type affected in Parkinson's disease. We assessed gene-environment interactions using isogenic hPSC lines for genetic variants associated with diabetes and Parkinson's disease. We found GSTT1-/- pancreatic β-like cells and dopamine neurons were both hypersensitive to propargite-induced cell death. Our study identifies an environmental chemical that contributes to human β-cell and dopamine neuron loss and validates a novel hPSC-based platform for determining gene-environment interactions.