Establishment of a Novel PDX Mouse Model and Evaluation of the Tumor Suppression Efficacy of Bortezomib Against Liposarcoma

Transl Oncol. 2019 Feb;12(2):269-281. doi: 10.1016/j.tranon.2018.09.015. Epub 2018 Nov 14.


The patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model has been adopted as a major tool for studying tumorigenesis and differentiation in various carcinomas. In addition, it has been used in the development of anticancer agents. PDX models have been among the most meaningful tools used to understand the role of stromal cells and vascular cells in the body, which are major factors in cancer development and the application of therapeutic agents. Also, the establishment of PDX models from liposarcoma patients is considered to be important for understanding lipomagenesis and following drugs development. For these reasons, we developed patient-derived cell (PDC) and PDX models derived from 20 liposarcoma patients. The tissues of these patients were obtained in accordance with the principles of the Samsung Medical Center's ethics policy, and cell culture and xenografting onto the mice were performed under these principles. High-throughput drug screening (HTS) was carried out using established PDCs to select candidate drugs. Among the different candidate anticancer drugs, we tested the effect of bortezomib, which was expected to inhibit MDM2 amplification. First, we confirmed that the PDCs maintained the characteristics of liposarcoma cells by assessing MDM2 amplification and CDK4 overexpression using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Analysis of short tandem repeats and an array using comparative genomic hybridization confirmed that the PDX model exhibited the same genomic profile as that of the patient. Immunohistochemistry for MDM2 and CDK4 showed that the overexpression patterns of both proteins were similar in the PDX models and the PDCs. Specifically, MDM2 amplification was observed to be significantly correlated with the successful establishment of PDX mouse models. However, CDK4 expression did not show such a correlation. Of the anticancer drugs selected through HTS, bortezomib showed a strong anticancer effect against PDC. In addition, we observed that bortezomib suppressed MDM2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, p21 tended to elicit an increase in PDC expression. Treatment of the PDX model with bortezomib resulted in an anticancer effect similar to that seen in the PDCs. These results support that PDCs and PDX models are among the most powerful tools for the development and clinical application of anticancer drugs for the treatment of liposarcoma patients.