Spontaneous coronary artery dissections and fibromuscular dysplasia: Current insights on pathophysiology, sex and gender

Int J Cardiol. 2019 Jul 1:286:220-225. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.11.023. Epub 2018 Nov 9.


Spontaneous coronary artery dissections (SCADs) are increasingly recognized as an important cause of acute coronary syndromes in predominantly women below 60 years of age. SCAD patients comprise a heterogeneous group, in which it is estimated that a quarter to one third have underlying fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD). Although the mutual relationship of SCAD and FMD is complex and only partly understood, there seems to be some overlap in genetic background and interaction with endogenous sex-steroids. In this review we provide an update of our current knowledge on these intriguing emerging arteriopathies.

Keywords: Arteriopathy; Fibromuscular dysplasia; Gender; Spontaneous coronary artery dissections; Women.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Coronary Vessel Anomalies / epidemiology
  • Coronary Vessel Anomalies / etiology*
  • Female
  • Fibromuscular Dysplasia / complications*
  • Global Health
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Risk Assessment / methods*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Sex Factors
  • Vascular Diseases / congenital*
  • Vascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Vascular Diseases / etiology

Supplementary concepts

  • Coronary Artery Dissection, Spontaneous