Diabetic retinopathy techniques in retinal images: A review

Artif Intell Med. 2019 Jun;97:168-188. doi: 10.1016/j.artmed.2018.10.009. Epub 2018 Nov 16.


The diabetic retinopathy is the main reason of vision loss in people. Medical experts recognize some clinical, geometrical and haemodynamic features of diabetic retinopathy. These features include the blood vessel area, exudates, microaneurysm, hemorrhages and neovascularization, etc. In Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems, these features are detected in fundus images using computer vision techniques. In this paper, we review the methods of low, middle and high level vision for automatic detection and classification of diabetic retinopathy.We give a detailed review of 79 algorithms for detecting different features of diabetic retinopathy during the last eight years.

Keywords: Blood vessels; Computer aided diagnosis; Diabetic retinopathy screening; Exudates; Optic disc.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetic Retinopathy / diagnostic imaging*
  • Humans
  • Retina / diagnostic imaging*
  • Retinal Vessels / diagnostic imaging