Fibrosis Rescue Improves Cardiac Function in Dystrophin-Deficient Mice and Duchenne Patient-Specific Cardiomyocytes by Immunoproteasome Modulation

Am J Pathol. 2019 Feb;189(2):339-353. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2018.10.010. Epub 2018 Nov 16.


Patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) develop a progressive dilated cardiomyopathy characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, necrosis, and cardiac fibrosis. Standard treatments consider the use of β-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors that are symptomatic and unspecific toward DMD disease. Medications that target DMD cardiac fibrosis are in the early stages of development. We found immunoproteasome dysregulation in affected hearts of mdx mice (murine animal model of DMD) and cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of patients with DMD. Interestingly, immunoproteasome inhibition ameliorated cardiomyopathy in mdx mice and reduced the development of cardiac fibrosis. Establishing the immunoproteasome inhibition-dependent cardioprotective role suggests the possibility of modulating the immunoproteasome as new and clinically relevant treatment to rescue dilated cardiomyopathy in patients with DMD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiomyopathies* / immunology
  • Cardiomyopathies* / pathology
  • Fibrosis
  • Humans
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells / immunology
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells / pathology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred mdx
  • Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne* / immunology
  • Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne* / pathology
  • Myocytes, Cardiac* / immunology
  • Myocytes, Cardiac* / pathology
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / immunology*


  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex