Pulmonary Hypertension in Women

Heart Fail Clin. 2019 Jan;15(1):137-145. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2018.08.013. Epub 2018 Oct 24.


Prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is higher in women, and the mechanism remains unclear. Prognosis is overall better for female compared with male patients with PAH. Pregnancy is associated with significant risk, mortality, and morbidity in patients with PAH; consensus guidelines recommend against pregnancy and counsel about early termination in these patients. Recent advances in treatment showed improvement in prognosis in small case reports of pregnant patients with PAH, particularly with the early use of parental prostacyclin. Education remains fundamental for women with PAH of childbearing age for pregnancy prevention as well as discussion about birth control methods.

Keywords: Pregnancy; Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Pulmonary hypertension; Women.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Contraception / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary* / epidemiology
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary* / physiopathology
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary* / therapy
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular / mortality*
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Adjustment
  • Risk Factors