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. 2018 Nov 6;7:F1000 Faculty Rev-1756.
doi: 10.12688/f1000research.15609.1. eCollection 2018.

Does Cardiac Development Provide Heart Research With Novel Therapeutic Approaches?

Free PMC article

Does Cardiac Development Provide Heart Research With Novel Therapeutic Approaches?

Angeliqua Sayed et al. F1000Res. .
Free PMC article


Embryonic heart progenitors arise at specific spatiotemporal periods that contribute to the formation of distinct cardiac structures. In mammals, the embryonic and fetal heart is hypoxic by comparison to the adult heart. In parallel, the cellular metabolism of the cardiac tissue, including progenitors, undergoes a glycolytic to oxidative switch that contributes to cardiac maturation. While oxidative metabolism is energy efficient, the glycolytic-hypoxic state may serve to maintain cardiac progenitor potential. Consistent with this proposal, the adult epicardium has been shown to contain a reservoir of quiescent cardiac progenitors that are activated in response to heart injury and are hypoxic by comparison to adjacent cardiac tissues. In this review, we discuss the development and potential of the adult epicardium and how this knowledge may provide future therapeutic approaches for cardiac repair.

Keywords: cardiac progenitor; epicardium; glycolytic; hypoxia; oxidative.

Conflict of interest statement

No competing interests were disclosed.No competing interests were disclosed.No competing interests were disclosed.


Figure 1.
Figure 1.. Patterning of mouse heart development.
( A) Hierarchical relationship of the different cardiac developmental progenitors and their progeny. ( B) Main developmental steps of heart morphogenesis. A color code was assigned and followed to define each cardiac progenitor population and their progeny. AVN, atrioventricular node; AVRB, atrioventricular ring bundle; CM, cardiomyocyte; E, embryonic day; FHF, first heart field; PVC, peripheral ventricular conduction system; SAN, sinoatrial node; SHF, second heart field.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.. Placenta-selected hypoxic and glycolytic microenvironment and its impact on the heart development and metabolic switch after birth.
A color code and symbols were assigned and followed to define the microenvironment condition (depicted in the legend). E, embryonic day.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.. Adult heart under physiological conditions and after injury.
Both the microenvironment and the cellular component are represented. A color code was assigned and followed to define each of the cardiac cell types and their associated cells (depicted in the legend). EMT, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

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Grant support

The laboratory is supported by the Laboratoire d’Excellence Revive (Investissement d’Avenir, ANR-10-LABX-73), the Fondation Leducq (grant 13CVD01; CardioStemNet project), and Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR) grant RHU CARMMA (ANR-15-RHUS-0003).