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, 8 (1), 17016

Fluoride-doped Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles as a Promising Biomimetic Material for Dental Remineralization

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Fluoride-doped Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles as a Promising Biomimetic Material for Dental Remineralization

Michele Iafisco et al. Sci Rep.

Abstract

Demineralization of dental hard tissue is a widespread problem and the main responsible for dental caries and dentin hypersensitivity. The most promising strategies to induce the precipitation of new mineral phase are the application of materials releasing gradually Ca2+ and PO43- ions or mimicking the mineral phase of the host tissue. However, the design of formulations covering both processes is so far a challenge in preventive dentistry. In this work, we have synthesized innovative biomimetic amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which has been, for the first time, doped with fluoride ions (FACP) to obtain materials with enhanced anti-caries and remineralizing properties. Significantly, the doping with fluoride (F) did not vary the physico-chemical features of ACP but resulted in a faster conversion to the crystalline apatite phase in water, as observed by in-situ time-dependent Raman experiments. The efficacy of the as synthesized ACP and FACP samples to occlude dentinal tubules and induce enamel remineralization has been tested in vitro in human molar teeth. The samples showed good ability to partially occlude the tubules of acid-etched dentin and to restore demineralized enamel into its native structure. Results demonstrate that ACP and FACP are promising biomimetic materials in preventive dentistry to hinder demineralization of dental hard tissues.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Morphological, structural and compositional characterization of ACP-4 nanoparticles. (a) TEM micrograph (inset: SAED pattern), (b) XRD pattern, (c) EDS spectrum and (d) FTIR spectrum.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Morphological, structural and compositional characterization of FACP nanoparticles. TEM micrograph of (a) FACP-h4 and (b) FACP-l4 nanoparticles (insets: SAED patterns); (c) XRD patterns and (d) FTIR spectra of FACP-l4 (magenta) and FACP-h4 (orange) nanoparticles.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Monitoring the (F)ACP-to-(F)HA conversion by in-situ Raman micro-spectroscopy. (a) Raman spectra of ACP-2 (red) and FACP-h2 (blue). In situ time-dependent Raman spectra (ν1PO4 vibrations) collected during the transformation of (b) ACP-2 and (c) FACP-h2 to HA and FHA, respectively, in water. (d) Time-dependent intensity ratio of the ν1PO4 peak of ACP-2/ FACP-h2 (952 cm−1) and HA/FHA (959 cm−1).
Figure 4
Figure 4
In vitro release of Ca and F in acidic artificial saliva. Cumulative Ca2+ ions release from (a) ACP samples and (b) FACP samples (B). (c) Cumulative F ions release from FACP samples. The cumulative release of Ca and F from crystalline FHA is also shown in (b) and (c), respectively.
Figure 5
Figure 5
SEM observations of dentin remineralization. SEM micrographs of (a,f) demineralized dentin and demineralized dentin treated with (b,g) ACP-4, (c,h) FACP-h4, (d,i) ACP-1, and (e,j) FACP-h1 at two different magnifications.
Figure 6
Figure 6
SEM observations of enamel mineralization. SEM micrographs of (a,f) demineralized enamel and demineralized enamel treated with (b,g) ACP-4, (c,h) FACP-h4, (d,i) ACP-1, and (e,j) FACP-h1 at two different magnifications.

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