Botanical Therapeutics: Phytochemical Screening and Biological Assessment of Chamomile, Parsley and Celery Extracts against A375 Human Melanoma and Dendritic Cells

Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Nov 16;19(11):3624. doi: 10.3390/ijms19113624.


Chamomile, parsley, and celery represent major botanical sources of apigenin, a well-known flavone with chemopreventive properties. The aim of this study was to assess the phytochemical composition, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory potential of methanol extracts obtained from chamomile, parsley, and celery collected from Romania, as well as the biological activity against A375 human melanoma and human dendritic cells. Results have shown that all three extracts are rich in polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids, and they generate a radical scavenger capacity, iron chelation potential, as well as lipoxygenase inhibition capacity. Chamomile and celery extracts present weak antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic properties in the set experimental conditions, while parsley extract draws out significant pro-apoptotic potential against A375 human melanoma cells. Parsley and chamomile extracts affected the fibroblast-like morphology of the screened tumor cell line. On the other hand, chamomile and celery extracts abrogated the expansion of LPS-activated dendritic cells, while the metabolic activity was attenuated by stimulation with celery extract; chamomile and parsley extracts had no effect upon this parameter. Chamomile and parsley extracts incubation with naive dendritic cells did not trigger cytokine secretion (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10), but celery extract stimulation significantly reduced the anti-inflammatory, cytokine IL-10.

Keywords: A375 human melanoma cells; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; celery; chamomile; dendritic cells; parsley.

MeSH terms

  • Apium / chemistry*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Caspase 3 / metabolism
  • Cell Cycle / drug effects
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Chamomile / chemistry*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Dendritic Cells / drug effects*
  • Flavonoids / analysis
  • Flavonoids / pharmacology
  • Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Lipoxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Melanoma / pathology*
  • Petroselinum / chemistry*
  • Phytochemicals / analysis*
  • Phytochemicals / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / analysis
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Polyphenols / analysis
  • Polyphenols / pharmacology
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


  • Flavonoids
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Lipoxygenase Inhibitors
  • Phytochemicals
  • Plant Extracts
  • Polyphenols
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • Caspase 3