Background: Uromodulin is specifically synthesized and secreted by kidney tubular epithelial cells. Studies on the association of serum uromodulin and outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate whether serum uromodulin was associated with outcomes of patients with CKD.
Methods: We measured serum uromodulin concentrations by ELISA in 2652 CKD patients from the Chinese Cohort Study of Chronic Kidney Disease (C-STRIDE) and investigated the association of serum uromodulin with outcomes of CKD patients, including end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) receiving kidney replacement therapy, cardiovascular events and mortality by Cox proportional hazards regression model.
Results: A total of 2652 CKD patients were enrolled in this study, with an age of 48.7 ± 13.8 years and the baseline eGFR of 49.6 ± 29.4 mL/min/1.73 m2, of whom 58.4% were male. The median level of urinary albumin/creatinine ratio and serum uromodulin was 473.7 mg/g (IQR 134.1-1046.6 mg/g) and 77.2 ng/mL (IQR 48.3-125.9 ng/mL), respectively. Altogether, 404 ESKD, 189 cardiovascular events, and 69 deaths occurred during the median follow-up of 53.6 (IQR 44.0-64.0) months. Lower levels of serum uromodulin were independently associated with higher risk of incident ESKD after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, with the hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.23 (95% confidence intervals [CIs] 2.15-4.85) for the middle tertile and 7.47 (95% CI 5.06-11.03) for the bottom tertile, compared with top tertile and 0.31 (95% CI 0.25-0.38) per every standard deviation increase. After further adjustment for the baseline eGFR, the association was greatly attenuated, but still significant, with HRs of 1.92 (95% CI 1.26-2.90) for the bottom tertile compared with top tertile and 0.69 (95% CI 0.55-0.86) per every standard deviation increase.
Conclusions: Serum uromodulin is independently associated with an increased risk of incident ESKD in CKD patients.
Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; Outcomes; Uromodulin.