Hypophosphatemic Rickets

Pediatr Clin North Am. 2019 Feb;66(1):179-207. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2018.09.004.


Hypophosphatemic rickets, mostly of the X-linked dominant form caused by pathogenic variants of the PHEX gene, poses therapeutic challenges with consequences for growth and bone development and portends a high risk of fractions and poor bone healing, dental problems and nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis. Conventional treatment consists of PO4 supplements and calcitriol requiring monitoring for treatment-emergent adverse effects. FGF23 measurement, where available, has implications for the differential diagnosis of hypophosphatemia syndromes and, potentially, treatment monitoring. Newer therapeutic modalities include calcium sensing receptor modulation (cinacalcet) and biological molecules targeting FGF23 or its receptors. Their long-term effects must be compared with those of conventional treatments.

Keywords: FGF23; Hypophosphatemia; Klotho; Osteomalacia; PHEX; Phosphate; Vitamin D; X-linked hypophosphatemia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Calcimimetic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Growth Hormone / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Mutation
  • Phosphates / therapeutic use
  • Rickets, Hypophosphatemic / diagnosis*
  • Rickets, Hypophosphatemic / drug therapy*
  • Rickets, Hypophosphatemic / genetics*
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use


  • Calcimimetic Agents
  • Phosphates
  • Vitamin D
  • Growth Hormone