Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections in Cystic Fibrosis

Thorac Surg Clin. 2019 Feb;29(1):95-108. doi: 10.1016/j.thorsurg.2018.09.008.


Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are important emerging cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogens, with estimates of prevalence ranging from 6% to 13%. Diagnosis of NTM disease in patients with CF is challenging, as the infection may remain indolent in some, without evidence of clinical consequence, whereas other patients suffer significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment requires prolonged periods of multiple drugs and varies depending on NTM species, resistance pattern, and extent of disease. The development of a disease-specific approach to the diagnosis and treatment of NTM infection in CF patients is a research priority, as a lifelong strategy is needed for this high-risk population.

Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Mycobacterium abscessus complex; Mycobacterium avium complex; Nontuberculous mycobacteria.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cystic Fibrosis / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Morbidity
  • Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous / diagnosis
  • Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous / epidemiology*
  • Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous / therapy*
  • Nontuberculous Mycobacteria / isolation & purification*
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors