As a consequence of gene cloning and DNA sequencing several gene families are emerging in the field of cell-cell recognition. These include immunoglobulins, integrins, certain extracellular glycoproteins and a family of functionally unrelated proteins which include factor B. We report here the cloning and sequencing of a gene from Plasmodium falciparum, coding for a protein we call thrombospondin related anonymous protein (TRAP), which shares certain sequence motifs common to other well-characterized proteins. The most significant homology is based around the sequence Trp-Ser-Pro-Cys-Ser-Val-Thr-Cys-Gly (WSPCSVTCG), present in three copies in region I of thrombospondin (TSP), six copies in properdin (P) and one copy in all the circumsporozoite (CS) proteins sequenced so far. TRAP also shares with certain extracellular glycoproteins, including TSP, the cell-recognition signal Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), which has been shown to be crucial in the interaction of several extracellular glycoproteins with members of the integrin superfamily. Unlike the CS protein, TRAP is expressed during the erythrocytic stage of the parasite life cycle.