An international team of experts in the field of fluid resuscitation was invited by the ESICM to form a task force to systematically review the evidence concerning fluid administration using basic monitoring. The work included a particular emphasis on pre-ICU hospital settings and resource-limited settings. The work focused on four main questions: (1) What is the role of clinical assessment to guide fluid resuscitation in shock? (2) What basic monitoring is required to perform and interpret a fluid challenge? (3) What defines a fluid challenge in terms of fluid type, ranges of volume, and rate of administration? (4) What are the safety endpoints during a fluid challenge? The expert panel found insufficient evidence to provide recommendations according to the GRADE system, and was only able to make recommendations for basic interventions, based on the available evidence and expert opinion. The panel identified significant gaps in the scientific evidence on fluid administration outside the ICU (excluding the operating theater). Globally, scientific communities and health care systems should address these critical gaps in evidence through research on how basic fluid administration in resource-rich and resource-limited settings can be improved for the benefit of patients and societies worldwide.
Keywords: Fluid Responsivenss; Fluids; Intensive Care; Shock.