Disseminated Spiroplasma apis Infection in Patient with Agammaglobulinemia, France

Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Dec;24(12):2382-2386. doi: 10.3201/eid2412.180567.


We report a disseminated infection caused by Spiroplasma apis, a honeybee pathogen, in a patient in France who had X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Identification was challenging because initial bacterial cultures and direct examination by Gram staining were negative. Unexplained sepsis in patients with agammaglobulinemia warrants specific investigation to identify fastidious bacteria such as Spiroplasma spp.

Keywords: Apis; Apis mellifera; Bruton; France; Spiroplasma; Spiroplasma apis; agammaglobulinemia; bacteria; bacterial endocarditis; bacterial infection; bee; bruton thyrosine kinase; btk; endocarditis; genetic diseases; hornet; hypogammaglobulinemia; immunocompromised; immunocompromised patient; infective endocarditis; insect stings; mycoplasma; septic arthritis; vector-borne infections; x linked agammaglobulinemia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Letter

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Agammaglobulinemia / complications*
  • Agammaglobulinemia / diagnosis
  • Agammaglobulinemia / therapy
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Biopsy
  • France
  • Genetic Diseases, X-Linked / complications
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / diagnosis*
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / drug therapy
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / etiology*
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / metabolism
  • Skin / microbiology
  • Skin / pathology
  • Spiroplasma* / classification
  • Spiroplasma* / genetics
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S

Supplementary concepts

  • Bruton type agammaglobulinemia