Is there an association between vitamin D level and iron deficiency in children?

Arch Argent Pediatr. 2018 Dec 1;116(6):e736-e743. doi: 10.5546/aap.2018.eng.e736.
[Article in En, Spanish]

Abstract

Introduction: Vitamin D (VitD) affects the erythropoiesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal/child 25-OH VitD (25-OHD) levels and iron deficiency (ID) and anemia (IDA) in children aged 6 months-5 years.

Population and methods: Between September 2014 and January 2016 children who were admitted to outpatient clinic were included to study. We excluded the children with acute or chronic infection, malnutrition, chronic disease and preterm birth history. Complete blood count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, ferritin, 25-OHD levels were examined from children and their mothers. Iron and VitD supplementation during infancy and pregnancy and breastfeeding history were questioned.

Results: The study included totally 117 children. There were 67 children with ID/IDA [Group 1, mean age (years):2.05±1.24 (0.5-5)] and 50 normal children [Group 2, mean age (years): 1.87±1.12 (0.58-5)]. There were more VitD deficient children and mothers in Group 1 than in Group 2 (respectively, children 49.3 % vs. 20 % p=0.002; mothers 94 % vs.64 %, p=<0.001). There was a positive correlation between hemoglobin levels of children and maternal/child 25-OHD.The independent risk factors for IDA in children were longer exclusively breastfeeding time (odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.1550.789; p=0.011), shorter duration of regular iron supplementation during infancy and pregnancy (infancy: OR,1.69; 95 % CI 1.148-2.508; p=0.008. pregnancy: OR,1.39; 95 % 0,1.070-1.820; p=0.014) and lower maternal 25-OHD level (OR,1.16; 95 % 0,1.034-1.292; p=0.011).

Conclusions: Maternal/child VitD deficiency is associated with ID/IDA in children aged 6 months-5 years.

Introducción. La vitamina D afecta la eritropoyesis. Objetivo: evaluar, en niños de 6 meses a 5 años, la asociación entre concentraciones de 25-hidroxi vitamina D (25-OHD) en la madre/niño, ferropenia y anemia ferropénica (AF). Población y métodos. Se incluyeron los niños que asistieron a la consulta entre septiembre de 2014 y enero de 2016. Se excluyeron aquellos con infección aguda/crónica, desnutrición, enfermedades crónicas y prematuros. Se realizó hemograma, hierro sérico, capacidad fijación del hierro, ferritina y 25-OHD. Se investigó suplemento con hierro y vitamina D durante lactancia y embarazo. Resultados. Se incluyeron 117 niños: 67 tenían ferropenia/AF |#91;Grupo 1, edad (años): 2,05 ± 1,24 (0,5-5)|#93; y 50 niños sanos |#91;Grupo 2, edad (años): 1,87 ± 1,12 (0,58-5)|#93;. Más niños y madres tuvieron deficiencia de vitamina D en Grupo 1 que en Grupo 2 (niños, 49,3 % vs 20 %, p=0,002, y madres: 94 % vs 64 %; p= < 0,001, respectivamente). Hubo correlación positiva entre la hemoglobina en niños y la 25-OHD en madres/niños. Factores independientes de riesgo de AF fueron más tiempo de lactancia (OR: 0,35; IC 95 % |#91;0,1550,789|#93;; p = 0,011), más breve suplementación con hierro durante la lactancia (OR: 1,69; IC 95 % |#91;1,148-2,508|#93;; p = 0,008) y embarazo (OR: 1,39; IC 95 % |#91;1,070-1,820|#93;; p = 0,014) y concentraciones < 25-OHD en madres (OR: 1,16; IC del 95 % |#91;1,034-1,292|#93;; p = 0,011). Conclusiones. La deficiencia de vitamina D en madres/niños está asociada con ferropenia/AF en los niños.

Keywords: Child; Iron deficiency; Vitamin D.

MeSH terms

  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / epidemiology*
  • Breast Feeding / statistics & numerical data
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Ferritins / blood
  • Hemoglobins / analysis
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Iron / blood
  • Iron / deficiency*
  • Male
  • Pregnancy
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage
  • Vitamin D / blood*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology

Substances

  • Hemoglobins
  • Vitamin D
  • Ferritins
  • Iron