In Vitro Effects of a Novel Coating Agent on Bacterial Biofilm Development on Ureteral Stents

J Endourol. 2019 Mar;33(3):225-231. doi: 10.1089/end.2018.0616. Epub 2018 Dec 21.


Objectives: Ureteral stenting is a widely used method for noninvasive urinary drainage in ureteral obstruction. However, biofilm development due to transient bacteriuria can cause severe complications such as incrustation with subsequent obstruction as well as recurrent urinary tract infection. Apart from local ailment such as dysuria, this increases both stent replacement frequency and incidence of complications. In this work, we investigated in vitro the bacterial adhesion to a surface-attached and cross-linked poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMAA) hydrogel network, which is known for its nonfouling and protein-repellent characteristics.

Materials and methods: To mimic the conditions encountered in vivo, PDMAA-coated and uncoated cyclic olefin polymer (COP) slides as well as polyurethane (PU)-coated glass slides were incubated in sterile human urine for 48 hours. Colonization was then simulated by adding known uropathogens, cultivated from clinical urine samples (such as Escherichia coli). After further incubation for 24 and 48 hours, slides were washed, and the remaining adherent bacteria were solubilized by ultrasound. CFUs were counted after plating and incubation for 48 hours of the resulting solution.

Results: PDMAA reduced adherent E. coli about fivefold on coated PU glass slides as well as in PDMAA-coated COP slides. With adherent Enterococcus faecalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae there was a tendency to decreased biofilm formation, but the difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: PDMAA reduces surface adherence of the most common uropathogen significantly. Assessment of clinical relevance and of the effect on further uropathogens needs further experimental and clinical evaluations. German Clinical Trial Register ID: DRKS00013264 (approved WHO primary register).

Keywords: : Ureteral obstruction/therapy; biocompatible materials; biofilm; polymers; stents; ureter.

MeSH terms

  • Acrylamides / chemistry
  • Bacterial Adhesion*
  • Bacteriuria / microbiology
  • Biofilms*
  • Enterococcus faecalis
  • Equipment Design
  • Escherichia coli*
  • Humans
  • Hydrogels / chemistry
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Stents*
  • Surface Properties
  • Ureter / microbiology*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / prevention & control


  • Acrylamides
  • Hydrogels
  • poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)

Associated data

  • DRKS/DRKS00013264