LSD1-, EDS1- and PAD4-dependent conditional correlation among salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide, water use efficiency and seed yield in Arabidopsis thaliana

Physiol Plant. 2019 Feb;165(2):369-382. doi: 10.1111/ppl.12863.


In Arabidopsis thaliana, LESION SIMULATING DISEASE 1 (LSD1), ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1) and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 (PAD4) proteins are regulators of cell death (CD) in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Hormones, such as salicylic acid (SA), and reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), are key signaling molecules involved in plant CD. The proposed mathematical models presented in this study suggest that LSD1, EDS1 and PAD4 together with SA and H2 O2 are involved in the control of plant water use efficiency (WUE), vegetative growth and generative development. The analysis of Arabidopsis wild-type and single mutants lsd1, eds1, and pad4, as well as double mutants eds1/lsd1 and pad4/lsd1, demonstrated the strong conditional correlation between SA/H2 O2 and WUE that is dependent on LSD1, EDS1 and PAD4 proteins. Moreover, we found a strong correlation between the SA/H2 O2 homeostasis of 4-week-old Arabidopsis leaves and a total seed yield of 9-week-old plants. Altogether, our results prove that SA and H2 O2 are conditionally regulated by LSD1/EDS/PAD4 to govern WUE, biomass accumulation and seed yield. Conditional correlation and the proposed models presented in this study can be used as the starting points in the creation of a plant breeding algorithm that would allow to estimate the seed yield at the initial stage of plant growth, based on WUE, SA and H2 O2 content.

MeSH terms

  • Acclimatization / radiation effects
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism*
  • Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism*
  • Models, Biological
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Photosynthesis / radiation effects
  • Salicylic Acid / metabolism*
  • Seeds / growth & development*
  • Stress, Physiological / radiation effects
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Water / metabolism*


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • EDS1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • LSD1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Transcription Factors
  • Water
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases
  • PAD4 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Salicylic Acid