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, 16 (1), 286-296

Wound-healing Effect of Adipose Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Matrix Sheet on Full-Thickness Skin Defect Rat Model: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

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Wound-healing Effect of Adipose Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Matrix Sheet on Full-Thickness Skin Defect Rat Model: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

Yoon J Lee et al. Int Wound J.

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Abstract

The potential use of extracellular matrix (ECM) as a source of wound dressing material has recently received much attention. The ECM is an intricate network of various combinations of elastin, collagens, laminin, fibronectin, and proteoglycans that play a key role in stimulating cell proliferation and differentiation. We evaluated the efficacy of an ECM sheet derived from human adipose tissue as a wound dressing material to enhance healing. We prepared a novel porous ECM sheet dressing scaffold from human adipose tissue. in vitro analysis of the ECM sheets showed efficient decellularisation; absence of immunostimulatory components; and the presence of a wide number of angiogenic and bioactive factors, including collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. To evaluate in vivo efficacy, full-thickness excisional wounds were created on the dorsal skin of a rat, and the ECM sheets; secondary healing foam wound dressing, Healoderm; or a conventional dressing were applied to each wound site. Photographs were taken every other day, and the degree of reepithelialisation of the wounds was determined. Application of an ECM sheet dressing enhanced the macroscopic wound-healing rate on days 4, 7, and 10 compared with that in the control group. Microscopic analysis indicated that the reepithelialisation rate of the wound was higher in the ECM group compared with that in the control group; the reepithelialisation rate was better than that of the secondary healing foam wound dressing. Moreover, a denser and more organised granulation tissue was formed in the ECM sheet group compared with that in the secondary healing foam wound dressing and control groups. The ECM sheet also showed the highest microvessel density compared with the secondary healing foam wound dressing and control groups. Based on these data, we suggest that a bioactive ECM sheet dressing derived from human adipose can provide therapeutic proteins for wound healing.

Keywords: adipose tissue; extracellular matrix proteins; reepithelialisation; wound healing.

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