Treatment of fever in neutropenia in pediatric oncology patients

Curr Opin Pediatr. 2019 Feb;31(1):35-40. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000708.


Purpose of review: Fever during neutropenia is a common occurrence in children with cancer. A number of studies have recently been performed to refine algorithms regarding initiation, modification, and termination of antimicrobial treatment and are the basis for international pediatric-specific guidelines for the treatment of fever and neutropenia in children with cancer.

Recent findings: Although hospitalization and prompt initiation of intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics remains the mainstay in the treatment of febrile neutropenic children with cancer, recent research has addressed a number of questions to optimize the management of these patients. Risk prediction rules have been evaluated to allow for individualized treatment intensity and to evaluate the safety of early discontinuation of empirical antibiotic therapy. In addition, the use of preemptive antifungal therapy has been evaluated to decrease the use of antifungal agents.

Summary: Based on the results of studies in children, pediatric-specific guidelines have been established and are regularly updated.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Fever / drug therapy*
  • Fever / etiology
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Neutropenia / complications*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents