Clinical Presentation and Management Outcomes of Coexistent Congenital Glaucoma and Retinopathy of Prematurity

J Glaucoma. 2019 Jan;28(1):20-26. doi: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001124.


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report presentation and outcomes of coexisting congenital glaucoma with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in "Indian Twin cities ROP study (ITCROPS)."

Methods: Children with ROP and congenital glaucoma were identified from ITCROPS (prospective digital database) between 1997 and 2016. The presentation, interventions, and outcomes for glaucoma and ROP were evaluated.

Results: Out of 15,000 premature-infants in the database, 3000 children had ROP, and of these 87 eyes of 57 premature children had glaucoma. Five eyes (5.7%) of 3 children in the entire ROP cohort had coexisting congenital glaucoma (before any ROP intervention), 3 eyes of 2 children had primary congenital glaucoma and 2 eyes of one child had glaucoma with microspherophakia. The mean age at surgery was 2.7±0.6 months. At presentation, all eyes had corneal edema, mean corneal diameter was 10.3±0.75 mm and IOP was 20.4±1.67 mm Hg. Three eyes had stage-2 ROP and two eyes had stage-3 ROP. Four eyes received intravitreal Bevacizumab. All eyes underwent combined trabeculotomy with trabeculectomy. Post glaucoma surgery, 2 eyes underwent laser for ROP and 1 eye with stage-2 ROP was observed with no treatment. ROP regressed without any sequalae in all 5 eyes. Two eyes with microspherophakia and one eye with lens coloboma underwent lensectomy. One eye postlensectomy needed Ahmed glaucoma valve implant for IOP control. The mean IOP at last follow-up was 13.6±1.67 mm Hg and all eyes needed topical antiglaucoma medications for IOP control.

Conclusions: Congenital glaucoma coexisting with ROP is a medical emergency. Intravitreal therapy can help tide over the vision-threatening fulminant phase of ROP while awaiting the effect of glaucoma surgery on corneal clarity. The need for medications even after glaucoma surgery suggests severe glaucoma phenotype. Close coordination between subspecialties is needed for best outcomes.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Bevacizumab / therapeutic use
  • Birth Weight
  • Gestational Age
  • Glaucoma Drainage Implants
  • Humans
  • Hydrophthalmos / complications*
  • Hydrophthalmos / diagnosis
  • Hydrophthalmos / therapy*
  • Infant
  • Infant, Premature
  • Intraocular Pressure / physiology
  • Intravitreal Injections
  • Laser Coagulation
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retinopathy of Prematurity / complications*
  • Retinopathy of Prematurity / diagnosis
  • Retinopathy of Prematurity / therapy*
  • Trabeculectomy
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Vitreoretinal Surgery


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • VEGFA protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Bevacizumab