Modulation of Host Immunity by Helminths: The Expanding Repertoire of Parasite Effector Molecules

Immunity. 2018 Nov 20;49(5):801-818. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2018.10.016.


Helminths are extraordinarily successful parasites due to their ability to modulate the host immune response. They have evolved a spectrum of immunomodulatory molecules that are now beginning to be defined, heralding a molecular revolution in parasite immunology. These discoveries have the potential both to transform our understanding of parasite adaptation to the host and to develop possible therapies for immune-mediated disease. In this review we will summarize the current state of the art in parasite immunomodulation and discuss perspectives on future areas for research and discovery.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Animals
  • Biological Evolution
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Dendritic Cells / metabolism
  • Helminthiasis / immunology*
  • Helminthiasis / parasitology
  • Helminths / immunology*
  • Host-Parasite Interactions*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Immunomodulation*
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Macrophages / metabolism