Molecular Fingerprints of Iron Parameters among a Population-Based Sample

Nutrients. 2018 Nov 19;10(11):1800. doi: 10.3390/nu10111800.


Iron deficiency is the most frequent deficiency disease and parameters of iron metabolism appear to be linked to major metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We screened a large set of small molecules in plasma for associations with iron status among apparently healthy subjects to elucidate subclinical profiles which may provide a link between iron status and onset of diseases. Based on mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy we determined 613 plasma metabolites and lipoprotein subfractions among 820 apparently healthy individuals. Associations between ferritin, transferrin, haemoglobin and myoglobin and metabolite levels were tested by sex-specific linear regression analyses controlling for common confounders. Far more significant associations in women (82 out of 102) compared to men became obvious. The majority of the metabolites associated with serum ferritin and haemoglobin in women comprising fatty acid species, branched-chain amino acid catabolites and catabolites of heme. The latter was also obvious among men. Positive associations between serum transferrin and VLDL and IDL particle measures seen in women were observed in men with respect to serum ferritin. We observed a sexual-dimorphic fingerprint of surrogates of iron metabolism which may provide a link for the associations between those parameters and major metabolic and cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: iron surrogates; lipoprotein profiling; metabolomics.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alanine Transaminase / blood
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Ferritins / blood
  • Hemoglobins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Iron / blood*
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myoglobin / blood
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Transferrin / metabolism
  • Waist Circumference


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hemoglobins
  • Myoglobin
  • Transferrin
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Ferritins
  • Iron
  • Alanine Transaminase