A Phase II Trial of Cytoreduction and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Recurrent Adrenocortical Carcinoma

J Surg Res. 2018 Dec:232:383-388. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2018.06.012.


Background: Recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive disease with few options offering durable survival benefit. Despite metastasectomy, recurrence is common. Cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy have offered improved survival in other advanced cancers. We sought to evaluate the use of cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for the treatment of recurrent intraperitoneal ACC.

Methods: A phase II, single institution clinical trial was approved for patients with radiographic evidence of resectable ACC limited to the peritoneum. Patients underwent treatment if optimal cytoreduction was deemed possible at exploratory laparotomy. Primary outcome was intraperitoneal progression-free survival. Secondary outcomes were treatment-related morbidities and overall survival.

Results: Sixty-three patients were evaluated, of whom 11 met eligibility criteria. Nine patients underwent cytoreduction and HIPEC, including one patient who recurred and was re-treated (n = 10 treatments). One patient could not be optimally cytoreduced for HIPEC and therefore did not receive intraperitoneal chemotherapy. There was no perioperative mortality; perioperative comorbidities were limited to Clavien-Dindo grade 2 or 3 and included hematologic, infectious, and neurologic complications. Seven patients experienced disease recurrence and two patients died of disease during follow-up (median 24 mo). Intraperitoneal progression-free survival was 19 mo, and median overall survival has not yet been reached.

Conclusions: Cytoreduction and HIPEC can be performed safely in selected patients. Patients with recurrent ACC confined to the peritoneal cavity can be considered for regional therapy in experienced hands. However, disease recurrence is common, and other treatment options should be explored.

Keywords: Adrenocortical carcinoma; Cytoreduction; Intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality
  • Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality
  • Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary
  • Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy*
  • Adult
  • Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Cisplatin / administration & dosage
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced / adverse effects*
  • Hyperthermia, Induced / methods
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy*
  • Patient Selection
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / mortality
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Prognosis
  • Progression-Free Survival


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Cisplatin