Aim: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies (ZnT8-ab), other diabetes-related autoantibodies and clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes in adults, depending on age of the onset of disease.
Methods: 119 patients with type 1 diabetes, 66 at age <35 years (T1DM < 35) and 53 T1DM at age ≥35 years (T1DM ≥ 35). We assessed clinical features, GAD-ab, IA2-ab, ICA, ZnT8-ab and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (ATPO).
Results: In T1DM < 35 lower initial serum C-peptide concentration was observed and diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) was more common. ATPO positivity was more prevalent in T1DM ≥ 35 (35.8 vs 21.2%, p = 0.04). The prevalence of GAD-ab, IA2-ab and ZnT8-ab was similar in both groups, the titres of IA2-ab and ICA were higher in T1DM < 35 but titre of ZnT8-ab was higher in T1DM ≥ 35. The majority of T1DM < 35 patients were positive for three autoantibodies (40.9%), while T1DM ≥ 35 subjects most often presented with only one (30.2%) antibody, most commonly GAD-ab (81.2%). 45% T1DM < 35 and 34% T1DM ≥ 35 subjects were positive for ZnT8-ab. ZnT8-ab positive patients had higher titre and more frequent occurrence of multiple diabetes-related autoantibodies than ZnT8-ab negative patients.
Conclusions: Adults with T1DM < 35 and T1DM ≥ 35 differ in the severity of autoimmune response at diagnosis. ZnT8-ab positivity is related to higher titre and more frequent occurrence of multiple diabetes-related autoantibodies.
Keywords: Autoimmune thyroiditis; Type 1 diabetes; Zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies.
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