Background: A cadaveric feasibility study was carried out. Osteotomies to correct fixed sagittal imbalance are usually performed at L3/ L4.
Objective: To investigate the feasibility of S1 pedicle subtraction osteotomy to correct spinal deformity and spinopelvic parameters, achieving better results with more limited exposure. The data obtained will allow a fixation construct specific for this osteotomy to be designed.
Methods: S1 pedicle subtraction osteotomy was performed on 12 cadaveric specimens. Baseline and postprocedural computed tomography and biomechanical studies were performed. Data were analyzed with a fixation system SolidWorks model, and the redesigned fixation construct was described and analyzed with an ANSYS model.
Results: S1 pedicle subtraction osteotomy is technically feasible. The fixation can be achieved with L4, L5, and iliac screws connected with bars. The system can be reinforced with a polyetheretherketone cage placed anteriorly in the S1 body osteotomy site, a cross-connecting bar, a double iliac screw, or an anterior interbody cage placed at the L5-S1 disc. The fixation strength is improved by angulating the iliac rod channel 10°, adding a semi-sphere to the locking screw contact surface and 2 fins to its saddle. The redesigned construct showed suitable stress and deformation levels, achieving the expected biomechanical requirements.
Discussion: Compared with surgery on higher levels, S1 pedicle subtraction osteotomy allows greater correction with shorter fixation, because the osteotomy is performed at a more caudal level, modifying the spinopelvic parameters.
Conclusions: S1 pedicle subtraction osteotomy is technically feasible. Finite element analysis results indicate that it has appropriate biomechanical properties.
Keywords: Finite element analysis; S(1) pedicle subtraction osteotomy; Sagittal profile; Spinal balance; Spinopelvic alignment; Spinopelvic parameters.
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