Introduction: Depressive symptoms in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are common and are associated with worse outcomes. It is not well described how often depressive symptoms are ascertained and treated in large unselected cohorts of patients, and whether depressive symptoms would be a potential target for improving outcomes.
Methods: Data were electronically retrieved from a multi-center EHR repository in Chicago, IL, from 2006 to 2012 ("multicenter cohort"). In the multicenter cohort, we retrieved diagnostic codes and medication data from four university health systems across Chicago. In the single center cohort, we prospectively screened for depressive symptoms (NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, PROMIS, T Score ≥ 60), at one, three and twelve months after ICH onset. It should be noted that not all depressive symptoms are optimally characterized through diagnostic codes.
Results: Diagnostic codes for depressive symptoms up to three months after ICH onset were recorded in 132 of 3422 (3.8%) of the multicenter cohort; fewer than 10% of patients received a typical medication to treat depressive symptoms, and < 2% one month later. In the single-center cohort, PROMIS assessments were indicative of depressive symptoms in 26 of 116 (22.4%), and depressive symptoms were more likely to be found with screening (OR 7.20, 95% CI 4.5-11.5, P < 0.0001). Results were similar up to 12 months after ICH.
Conclusions: Depressive symptoms in patients with ICH are more common than medication treatment or a coded diagnosis in a multi-center cohort, and are a potential opportunity for additional treatment to improve outcomes. There are currently no AHA/ASA treatment guidelines for depression screening of patients with ICH.
Keywords: Antidepressant medication; Depression; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Neurocritical care; Quality of life.