12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is an enzyme, which oxidizes polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly omega-6 and -3 fatty acids, to generate a number of bioactive lipid metabolites. A large number of studies have revealed the importance of 12/15-LOX role in oxidative and inflammatory responses. The in vitro studies have demonstrated the ability of 12/15-LOX metabolites in the expression of various genes and production of cytokine related to inflammation and resolution of inflammation. The studies with the use of knockout and transgenic animals for 12/15-LOX have further shown its involvement in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases, including cardiovascular, renal, neurological and metabolic disorders. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the role of 12/15-LOX in inflammation and various human diseases.
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