Paraquat exposure and Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Arch Environ Occup Health. 2019;74(5):225-238. doi: 10.1080/19338244.2018.1492894. Epub 2018 Nov 25.


To reconcile and unify available results regarding paraquat exposure and Parkinson's disease (PD), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the risk of PD associated with paraquat exposure. Six scientific databases including PubMed, Cochrane libraries, EMBASE, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and TOXLINE were systematically searched. The overall odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% CIs were calculated using a random-effects model. Of 7,309 articles identified, 13 case control studies with 3,231 patients and 4,901 controls were included into our analysis. Whereas, one prospective cohort studies was included into our systematic review. A subsequent meta-analysis showed an association between PD and paraquat exposure (odds ratio = 1.64 (95% CI: 1.27-2.13; I2 = 24.8%). There is a statistically significant association between paraquat exposure and PD. Thus, future studies regarding paraquat and Parkinson's disease are warranted.

Keywords: Paraquat; Parkinson’s disease; systematic review and meta-analysis.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Occupational Exposure
  • Odds Ratio
  • Paraquat / adverse effects*
  • Parkinson Disease / epidemiology*
  • Parkinson Disease / etiology
  • Risk Factors


  • Paraquat