A Novel Quantitative Method for the Detection of Lipofuscin, the Main By-Product of Cellular Senescence, in Fluids

Methods Mol Biol. 2019:1896:119-138. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-8931-7_12.


Lipofuscin accumulation is a hallmark of senescence. This nondegradable material aggregates in the cytoplasm of stressed or damaged cells due to metabolic imbalance associated with aging and age-related diseases. Indications of a soluble state of lipofuscin have also been provided, rendering the perspective of monitoring such processes via lipofuscin quantification in liquids intriguing. Therefore, the development of an accurate and reliable method is of paramount importance. Currently available assays are characterized by inherent pitfalls which demote their credibility. We herein describe a simple, highly specific and sensitive protocol for measuring lipofuscin levels in any type of liquid. The current method represents an evolution of a previously described assay, developed for in vitro and in vivo senescent cell recognition that exploits a newly synthesized Sudan Black-B analog (GL13). Analysis of human clinical samples with the modified protocol provided strong evidence of its usefulness for the exposure and surveillance of age-related conditions.

Keywords: Age-related diseases; Aging; Biological fluids; GL13 (SenTraGor™); Lipofuscin; Senescence.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aging*
  • Azo Compounds*
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Cellular Senescence*
  • Humans
  • Lipofuscin / blood*
  • Middle Aged
  • Naphthalenes*
  • Staining and Labeling
  • Young Adult


  • Azo Compounds
  • Biomarkers
  • Lipofuscin
  • Naphthalenes
  • Sudan Black B