Extrapyramidal Symptoms

In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan.


Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), commonly referred to as drug-induced movement disorders are among the most common adverse drug effects patients experience from dopamine-receptor blocking agents. It was first described in 1952 after chlorpromazine-induced symptoms resembling Parkinson disease. A variety of movement phenotypes has since been described along the EPS spectrum, including dystonia, akathisia, and parkinsonism, which occur more acutely, as well as more chronic manifestations of tardive akathisia and tardive dyskinesia. The symptoms of EPS are debilitating, interfering with social functioning and communication, motor tasks, and activities of daily living. This is often associated with poor quality of life and abandonment of therapy, which may result in disease relapse and re-hospitalization, particularly in schizophrenic patients stopping pharmacologic therapy.

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