Findings of CT-Derived Bone Strength Assessment in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Undergoing CT Enterography in Clinical Practice

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2019 May 4;25(6):1072-1079. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izy341.


Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at risk of developing complications from metabolic bone disease, but the exact prevalence is unknown. We evaluated fracture risk in IBD patients using (1) biomechanical CT analysis (BCT) using bone strength and bone mineral density (BMD), (2) Cornerstone guidelines, and (3) other clinical features predicting fracture risk.

Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive IBD patients who underwent CT enterography (CTE) with BCT from March 2014 to March 2017 was performed. Measured outcomes were overall fracture risk classification (not increased, increased, or high) and femoral neck BMD World Health Organization classification (normal, osteopenia, or osteoporosis).

Results: Two hundred fifty-seven patients with IBD underwent CTE and BCT. Fracture risk was classified as not increased in 45.5% (116/255) of patients, increased in 44.7% (114/255), and high in 9.8% (25/255). Femoral neck BMD was classified as normal in 56.8% (142/250), osteopenia in 37.6% (94/250), and osteoporosis in 5.6% (14/250). In multivariate analysis, only increasing age was associated with increased fracture risk (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.08; P < 0.001). Cornerstone guidelines were met by 35.3% (41/116), 56.1% (64/114), and 76.0% (19/25) of patients in the not increased, increased, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.0001). No Cornerstone criteria were met by 40% (56/139) of patients in the increased and high-risk groups.

Conclusions: Using BCT, increased or high fracture risk was detected in more than half of this cohort, the prevalence being associated with increased age. A significant proportion of patients with increased or high fracture risk did not meet Cornerstone guidelines. Therefore, IBD patients who do not meet Cornerstone guidelines may benefit from BCT screening.

Keywords: CT enterography; inflammatory bowel disease; osteoporosis.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bone Density
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / diagnosis*
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / diagnostic imaging
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / epidemiology
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / etiology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Fractures, Bone / diagnosis*
  • Fractures, Bone / diagnostic imaging
  • Fractures, Bone / epidemiology
  • Fractures, Bone / etiology
  • Humans
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / complications*
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / methods*
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis / diagnosis*
  • Osteoporosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Osteoporosis / epidemiology
  • Osteoporosis / etiology
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic*
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods*