Modeling Human Digestive Diseases With CRISPR-Cas9-Modified Organoids

Gastroenterology. 2019 Feb;156(3):562-576. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.11.048. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Abstract

Insights into the stem cell niche have allowed researchers to cultivate adult tissue stem cells as organoids that display structural and phenotypic features of healthy and diseased epithelial tissues. Organoids derived from patients' tissues are used as models of disease and to test drugs. CRISPR-Cas9 technology can be used to genetically engineer organoids for studies of monogenic diseases and cancer. We review the derivation of organoids from human gastrointestinal tissues and how CRISPR-Cas9 technology can be used to study these organoids. We discuss burgeoning technologies that are broadening our understanding of diseases of the digestive system.

Keywords: Colorectal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Pancreatic Cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • CRISPR-Cas Systems / genetics*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / genetics
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / pathology
  • Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / pathology
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Organoids*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Sensitivity and Specificity