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Review
, 133, 337-343

Quantifying the Imprecision of Energy Intake of Humans to Compensate for Imposed Energetic Errors: A Challenge to the Physiological Control of Human Food Intake

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Review

Quantifying the Imprecision of Energy Intake of Humans to Compensate for Imposed Energetic Errors: A Challenge to the Physiological Control of Human Food Intake

David A Levitsky et al. Appetite.

Abstract

To assess the precision of the biological control of energy intake we performed a systematic review of studies that measured acute changes in human food intake in response to energetic errors. The imposed errors were grouped into the following categories of studies: alternate day fasting, changes in diet composition, exercise, meal skipping, overfeeding, energy substitutes, underfeeding and changes in portion size. Seven hundred thirty-nine studies published between 1980 and 2017 were identified from which the data from 592 groups from 200 studies were extracted and subjected to analysis consisting of a total of 13,203 participants. For each category of imposing an energetic error, an Energetic Error was calculated as (Observed Mean Energy Intake - Expected Mean Energy Intake)/Expected Mean Energy Intake. In no category of studies was the Energetic Error equal to zero. In studies where participants were expected to increase energy intake, the increase was not sufficient to overcome the deficit. Similarly, in studies where a reduction in energy intake was expected, the reduction was insufficient to restore energy balance to zero. The average energetic error resulting from imposed energetic challenges is about twenty-four percent, a value sufficiently large to account for the increase in body weight observed in the U.S. population over the past 50 years.

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