Physiological Effects of Viewing Bonsai in Elderly Patients Undergoing Rehabilitation

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Nov 25;15(12):2635. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15122635.


The benefits of various nature-derived stimuli that can be used for stress relief and relaxation has recently gained immense attention; however, there are very few studies about their influence on elderly patients. The present study aims to present the effects of viewing bonsai on autonomic nervous activity, prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective assessment findings of psychological relaxation in elderly patients undergoing rehabilitation. Fourteen participants aged 64⁻91 years (mean age ± standard deviation, 78.6 ± 9.6 years) participated in this study. Miniature potted 10-year-old Japanese cypress bonsai trees were used as visual stimuli. Participants viewed the bonsai for 1 min, and the control comprised of no experimental stimulus. Physiological effects on autonomic nervous activity were assessed by measuring the heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse rate. The effects on prefrontal cortex activity were determined using near-infrared spectroscopy, which involved assessment of oxyhemoglobin concentrations in the left and right prefrontal cortices. Subjective evaluations were achieved by the modified semantic differential method. Viewing bonsai resulted in a significant increase in parasympathetic nervous activity, a significant decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, and a significant increase in the perceptions of feeling "comfortable" and "relaxed." In conclusion, our findings indicated that viewing bonsai induces physiological and psychological relaxation.

Keywords: heart rate variability; nature therapy; near-infrared spectroscopy; older adults; semantic differential method.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Complementary Therapies / methods*
  • Emotions
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / physiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxyhemoglobins / analysis
  • Parasympathetic Nervous System / physiology*
  • Perception
  • Prefrontal Cortex / physiology
  • Rehabilitation Centers*
  • Relaxation / physiology*
  • Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
  • Sympathetic Nervous System / physiology
  • Trees*


  • Oxyhemoglobins