Natural history and risk factors for diabetic kidney disease in patients with T2D: lessons from the AMD-annals

J Nephrol. 2019 Aug;32(4):517-525. doi: 10.1007/s40620-018-00561-3. Epub 2018 Nov 27.


The Associazione Medici Diabetologi (AMD) annals initiative is an ongoing observational survey promoted by AMD. It is based on a public network of about 700 Italian diabetes clinics, run by specialists who provide diagnostic confirmation and prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications. Over the last few years, analysis of the AMD annals dataset has contributed several important insights on the clinical features of type-2 diabetes kidney disease and their prognostic and therapeutic implications. First, non-albuminuric renal impairment is the predominant clinical phenotype. Even though associated to a lower risk of progression compared to overt albuminuria, it contributes significantly to the burden of end-stage renal disease morbidity. Second, optimal blood pressure control provides significant but incomplete renal protection. It reduces albuminuria but there may be a J curve phenomenon with eGFR at very low blood pressure values. Third, hyperuricemia and diabetic hyperlipidemia, namely elevated triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol, are strong independent predictors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) onset in diabetes, although the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these associations remain uncertain. Fourth, the long-term intra-individual variability in HbA1c, lipid parameters, uric acid and blood pressure plays a greater role in the appearance and progression of CKD than the absolute value of each single variable. These data help clarify the natural history of CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes and provide important clues for designing future interventional studies.

Keywords: Albuminuria; Chronic kidney disease; Glomerular filtration rate; Hypertension; T2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Albuminuria / etiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / etiology*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / urine
  • Dyslipidemias / complications
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications
  • Risk Factors
  • Uric Acid / blood


  • Uric Acid