[Causes of mediastinal/hilar granulomatous lymphadenitis]

Tuberk Toraks. 2018 Sep;66(3):212-216. doi: 10.5578/tt.67018.
[Article in Turkish]


Introduction: Granulomatous lung disease (GLD) is caused by a wide range of conditions and it is challenge for pulmonologist. A detailed history of exposures is fundamental in GDL and has been found pivotal to reach a precise diagnosis.

Materials and methods: Between September 2014 and December 2016, the distribution of patients diagnosed with granulomatous lymphadenitis in the mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes by endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) or mediastinoscopy was analyzed. To be listed as 'confident', a diagnosis of sarcoidosis required compatible histological, radiological and clinical findings in conjunction with negative cultures. Infectious entities listed as 'confident' had either microorganisms in tissue section, positive culture, positive serology or positive antigen detection in a consistent clinical pathological setting.

Result: Granulomatous lymphadenitis was detected in 110 patients. The included 110 cases consisted of 70.9% women and median age of 53 (range 44-61) years. The final diagnosis of the patients was accepted to be sarcoidosis in 79 (71.8%), sarcoid like granulomas in 7 (6.4%), tuberculosis in 4 (3.6%), silicosis in 4 (3.6%), drug-associated granuloma in 2 (1.8%), hypersensitivity pneumonitis in 1 (0.9%), Chron disease in 1 (0.9%), unspecified in 12 (10.9%). Three patients were classified as tuberculosis based on culture.

Conclusions: In this study, we found that the most common cause of granulomatous lymphadenitis was sarcoidosis. Contrary to expectations, the number of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis was very low.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Granuloma / complications
  • Granuloma / diagnostic imaging
  • Granuloma / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • Lymphadenitis / complications
  • Lymphadenitis / diagnostic imaging
  • Lymphadenitis / pathology*
  • Male
  • Mediastinum / diagnostic imaging
  • Mediastinum / pathology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Ultrasonography