Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young due to Glucokinase, HNF1-A, HNF1-B, and HNF4-A Mutations in a Cohort of Turkish Children Diagnosed as Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Horm Res Paediatr. 2018;90(4):257-265. doi: 10.1159/000494431. Epub 2018 Nov 27.


Background/aims: Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a rare condition often misdiagnosed as type 1 diabetes (T1D). The purposes of this study were: to identify any patients followed in a large Turkish cohort as T1D, with an atypical natural history, who may in fact have MODY, and to define the criteria which would indicate patients with likely MODY as early as possible after presentation to allow prompt genetic testing.

Methods: Urinary C-peptide/creatinine ratio (UCPCR) was studied in 152 patients having a diagnosis of T1D for at least 3 years. Those with a UCPCR ≥0.2 nmol/mmol were selected for genetic analysis of the Glucokinase (GCK), Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1a (HNF1A), Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4a (HNF4A), and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1b (HNF1B) genes. This UCPCR cut-off was used because of the reported high sensitivity and specificity. Cases were also evaluated using a MODY probability calculator.

Results: Twenty-three patients from 152 participants (15.1%) had a UCPCR indicating persistent insulin reserve. The mean age ± SD of the patients was 13.6 ± 3.6 years (range 8.30-21.6). Of these 23, two (8.7%) were found to have a mutation, one with HNF4A and one with HNF1B mutation. No mutations were detected in the GCK or HNF1A genes.

Conclusion: In Turkish children with a diagnosis of T1D but who have persistent insulin reserve 3 years after diagnosis, up to 9% may have a genetic mutation indicating a diagnosis of MODY.

Keywords: Childhood; Monogenic diabetes; Type 1 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / genetics*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • Female
  • Glucokinase / genetics*
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha / genetics*
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta / genetics*
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mutation*
  • Turkey


  • HNF1A protein, human
  • HNF1B protein, human
  • HNF4A protein, human
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta
  • Glucokinase