TRPM8 Activation via 3-Iodothyronamine Blunts VEGF-Induced Transactivation of TRPV1 in Human Uveal Melanoma Cells

Front Pharmacol. 2018 Nov 13;9:1234. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01234. eCollection 2018.


In human uveal melanoma (UM), tumor enlargement is associated with increases in aqueous humor vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) content that induce neovascularization. 3-Iodothyronamine (3-T1AM), an endogenous thyroid hormone metabolite, activates TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8), which blunts TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activation by capsaicin (CAP) in human corneal, conjunctival epithelial cells, and stromal cells. We compare here the effects of TRPM8 activation on VEGF-induced transactivation of TRPV1 in an UM cell line (92.1) with those in normal primary porcine melanocytes (PM) since TRPM8 is upregulated in melanoma. Fluorescence Ca2+-imaging and planar patch-clamping characterized functional channel activities. CAP (20 μM) induced Ca2+ transients and increased whole-cell currents in both the UM cell line and PM whereas TRPM8 agonists, 100 μM menthol and 20 μM icilin, blunted such responses in the UM cells. VEGF (10 ng/ml) elicited Ca2+ transients and augmented whole-cell currents, which were blocked by capsazepine (CPZ; 20 μM) but not by a highly selective TRPM8 blocker, AMTB (20 μM). The VEGF-induced current increases were not augmented by CAP. Both 3-T1AM (1 μM) and menthol (100 μM) increased the whole-cell currents, whereas 20 μM AMTB blocked them. 3-T1AM exposure suppressed both VEGF-induced Ca2+ transients and increases in underlying whole-cell currents. Taken together, functional TRPM8 upregulation in UM 92.1 cells suggests that TRPM8 is a potential drug target for suppressing VEGF induced increases in neovascularization and UM tumor growth since TRPM8 activation blocked VEGF transactivation of TRPV1.

Keywords: 3-iodothyronamine; Intracellular Ca2+; transient receptor potential melastatin 8; transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel; uveal melanoma; vascular endothelial growth factor.