Microwave Spectroscopic Detection of Human Hsp70 Protein on Annealed Gold Nanostructures on ITO Glass Strips

Biosensors (Basel). 2018 Nov 27;8(4):118. doi: 10.3390/bios8040118.


Conductive indium-tin oxide (ITO) and non-conductive glass substrates were successfully modified with embedded gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) formed by controlled thermal annealing at 550 °C for 8 h in a preselected oven. The authors characterized the formation of AuNPs using two microscopic techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The analytical performances of the nanostructured-glasses were compared regarding biosensing of Hsp70, an ATP-driven molecular chaperone. In this work, the human heat-shock protein (Hsp70), was chosen as a model biomarker of body stress disorders for microwave spectroscopic investigations. It was found that microwave screening at 4 GHz allowed for the first time the detection of 12 ng/µL/cm² of Hsp70.

Keywords: ITO functionalization; biosensor; label-free microwave detection; molecular chaperone Hsp70.

MeSH terms

  • Biosensing Techniques / methods*
  • Glass
  • Gold / chemistry*
  • HSP72 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Metal Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Nanostructures / chemistry*


  • HSP72 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Gold