Conductive indium-tin oxide (ITO) and non-conductive glass substrates were successfully modified with embedded gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) formed by controlled thermal annealing at 550 °C for 8 h in a preselected oven. The authors characterized the formation of AuNPs using two microscopic techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The analytical performances of the nanostructured-glasses were compared regarding biosensing of Hsp70, an ATP-driven molecular chaperone. In this work, the human heat-shock protein (Hsp70), was chosen as a model biomarker of body stress disorders for microwave spectroscopic investigations. It was found that microwave screening at 4 GHz allowed for the first time the detection of 12 ng/µL/cm² of Hsp70.
Keywords: ITO functionalization; biosensor; label-free microwave detection; molecular chaperone Hsp70.