This study aimed to assess characteristics associated with infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), producing (CPE) or not producing (non-CPE) carbapenemase, among hospitalised patients in 2014-2016 in France. Case-patients with CRE were compared to two control populations. In multivariate analysis comparing 160 CRE cases to 160 controls C1 (patients with a clinical sample positive for carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae), five characteristics were linked to CRE: male gender (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.3-3.4), travel in Asia (OR = 10.0; 95% CI = 1.1-91.2) and hospitalisation in (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.4) or out of (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 0.8-24.1) France in the preceding 12 months, infection in the preceding 3 months (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.5-5.9), and antibiotic receipt between admission and inclusion (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0-3.3). In multivariate analysis comparing 148 CRE cases to 148 controls C2 [patients with culture-negative sample(s)], four characteristics were identified: prior infection (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.6-6.8), urine drainage (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.5-6.1) and mechanical ventilation (OR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.1-13.0) during the current hospitalisation, and antibiotic receipt between admission and inclusion (OR = 6.6; 95% CI = 2.8-15.5). Univariate analyses comparing separately CPE cases to controls (39 CPE vs C1 and 36 CPE vs C2) and non-CPE cases to controls (121 non-CPE vs C1 and 112 non-CPE vs C2), concomitantly with comparison of CPE to non-CPE cases showed that only CPE cases were at risk of previous travel and hospitalisation abroad. This study shows that, among CRE, risk factors are different for CPE and non-CPE infection, and suggests that question patients about their medical history and lifestyle should help for early identification of patients at risk of CPE among patients with CRE.
Keywords: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE); Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE); Case-control-control study; Multicentre study; Risk factors.