Background: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 2 (HSAN2) is an autosomal recessive disorder with predominant sensory dysfunction and severe complications such as limb destruction. There are different subtypes of HSAN2, including HSAN2A, which is caused by mutations in WNK1/HSN2 gene.
Methods: An Iranian family with four siblings and autosomal recessive inheritance pattern whom initially diagnosed with HSAN2 underwent whole exome sequencing (WES) followed by segregation analysis.
Results: According to the filtering criteria of the WES data, a novel candidate variation, c.3718C > A in WNK1/HSN2 gene that causes p.Tyr1025* was identified. This variation results in a truncated protein with 1025 amino acids instead of the wild-type product with 2645 amino acids. Sanger sequencing revealed that the mutation segregates with disease status in the pedigree.
Conclusions: The identified novel nonsense mutation in WNK1/HSN2 in an Iranian HSAN2 pedigree presents allelic heterogeneity of this gene in different populations. The result of current study expands the spectrum of mutations of the HSN2 gene as the genetic background of HSAN2A as well as further supports the hypothesis that HSN2 is a causative gene for HSAN2A. However, it seems that more research is required to determine the exact effects of this product in the nervous system.
Keywords: HSAN2; Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies; Nonsense mutation; Whole exome sequencing, WNK1 gene.