Laryngeal stenosis in children: Types, grades and treatment strategies

J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Sep;54(9):1933-1937. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2018.09.027. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Abstract

Introduction: Laryngeal stenosis is infrequent in children and usually secondary to endotracheal intubation. The aims of this study were to review the outcomes of the distinct endoscopic and surgical procedures and to suggest a technical modification for one of them.

Methods: Retrospective review of patients with the diagnosis of laryngeal stenosis treated in an academic tertiary care institution between 2000 and 2017. The following variables were analyzed: demographic data, endoscopic findings including anatomic type and severity of the lesion, associated anomalies, type of treatment, outcomes, and time of follow-up.

Results: Seventy-eight children were included in the study (39 boys) with a median age at diagnosis of 9 months, and 33 (42.3%) showed an associated anomaly. Lesions were acquired in 84.6% of cases and the subglottic region was most frequently involved (77%). Thirty patients (38.4%) had a severe stenosis (Myer-Cotton grades III and IV) and a tracheotomy was performed as an initial treatment in 38 patients (48.7%). Overall, 91% of endoscopically or surgically treated patients showed a good outcome and the decannulation rate in the series was 79.4%. Fourteen patients were managed conservatively. Median follow-up was 29 months (I.R. 10-60 m.) CONCLUSIONS: Laryngeal stenosis in children is usually acquired and exhibit a wide range of anatomic presentations. Endoscopic therapeutic procedures may be useful in the management of low grade immature stenosis. Reconstructive surgical techniques may provide a high success rate with an appropriate selection of candidates.

Keywords: Children; Laryngeal stenosis; Laryngotracheal reconstruction; Partial cricotracheal resection; Tracheotomy.

MeSH terms

  • Conservative Treatment
  • Endoscopy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Laryngostenosis* / epidemiology
  • Laryngostenosis* / therapy
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tracheostomy
  • Treatment Outcome