Sensing of the gut microbiota, including fungi, regulates mucosal immunity. Whether fungal sensing in the gut can influence immunity at other body sites is unknown. Here we show that fluconazole-induced gut fungal dysbiosis has persistent effects on allergic airway disease in a house dust mite challenge model. Mice with a defined community of bacteria, but lacking intestinal fungi were not susceptible to fluconazole-induced dysbiosis, while colonization with a fungal mixture recapitulated the detrimental effects. Gut-resident mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) expressing the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 were essential for the effect of gut fungal dysbiosis on peripheral immunity. Depletion of CX3CR1+ MNPs or selective inhibition of Syk signaling downstream of fungal sensing in these cells ameliorated lung allergy. These results indicate that disruption of intestinal fungal communities can have persistent effects on peripheral immunity and aggravate disease severity through fungal sensing by gut-resident CX3CR1+ MNPs.
Keywords: CX3CR1(+) mononuclear phagocytes; fungi; gut-lung axis; mycobiome; mycobiota dysbiosis.
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