What does a pain 'biomarker' mean and can a machine be taught to measure pain?

Neurosci Lett. 2019 May 29;702:40-43. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2018.11.038. Epub 2018 Nov 29.


Artificial intelligence allows machines to predict human faculties such as image and voice recognition. Can machines be taught to measure pain? We argue that the two fundamental requirements for a device with 'pain biomarker' capabilities are hardware and software. We discuss the merits and limitations of electroencephalography (EEG) as the hardware component of a putative embodiment of the device, and advances in the application of machine learning approaches to EEG for predicting pain.

Keywords: Biomarker; EEG; Machine learning; Pain.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Electroencephalography
  • Machine Learning*
  • Pain / diagnosis*
  • Pain / physiopathology
  • Pain Measurement*
  • Terminology as Topic


  • Biomarkers