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Review
. 2018 Nov 30;131(23):jcs216804.
doi: 10.1242/jcs.216804.

Endocytosis in Proliferating, Quiescent and Terminally Differentiated Cells

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Free article
Review

Endocytosis in Proliferating, Quiescent and Terminally Differentiated Cells

Claudia Hinze et al. J Cell Sci. .
Free article

Abstract

Endocytosis mediates nutrient uptake, receptor internalization and the regulation of cell signaling. It is also hijacked by many bacteria, viruses and toxins to mediate their cellular entry. Several endocytic routes exist in parallel, fulfilling different functions. Most studies on endocytosis have used transformed cells in culture. However, as the majority of cells in an adult body have exited the cell cycle, our understanding is biased towards proliferating cells. Here, we review the evidence for the different pathways of endocytosis not only in dividing, but also in quiescent, senescent and terminally differentiated cells. During mitosis, residual endocytosis is dedicated to the internalization of caveolae and specific receptors. In non-dividing cells, clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) functions, but the activity of alternative processes, such as caveolae, macropinocytosis and clathrin-independent routes, vary widely depending on cell types and functions. Endocytosis supports the quiescent state by either upregulating cell cycle arrest pathways or downregulating mitogen-induced signaling, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. Endocytosis in terminally differentiated cells, such as skeletal muscles, adipocytes, kidney podocytes and neurons, supports tissue-specific functions. Finally, uptake is downregulated in senescent cells, making them insensitive to proliferative stimuli by growth factors. Future studies should reveal the molecular basis for the differences in activities between the different cell states.

Keywords: Cell cycle; Clathrin-independent endocytosis; Clathrin-mediated endocytosis; Endocytosis; Mitosis; Quiescence; Senescence; Terminally differentiated cells.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interestsThe authors declare no competing or financial interests.

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