Thrombin generation during a regular menstrual cycle in women with von Willebrand disease

Sci Rep. 2018 Nov 30;8(1):17467. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-35897-0.


Fluctuations of the sex steroids during the menstrual cycle might significantly influence hemostasis. This association, derived from a number of the observations on healthy women, is yet to be described in females affected by bleeding disorders. The aim of the current study was to assess the changes in hemostatic variables in women with vWD during two phases of the menstrual cycle (follicular and luteal) and to compare it with healthy controls. The study group included 12 vWD-affected females with regular menstrual cycle, with none of them being prescribed any hormonal treatment. The control group consisted of 102 healthy females, matched for age and BMI. Within the vWD group FVIII and FX were both significantly higher during follicular phase than in luteal phase (p = 0.013 and p = 0.033 respectively). AT, FII, FVII and FX were higher in women with vWD, compared with controls during both phases of the menstrual cycle (p < 0.0005, p < 0.0005, p = 0.001 and p < 0.0005). In women with vWD, lag time and time to peak were prolonged during both phases of the menstrual cycle(p < 0.0005), while peak thrombin concentration was reduced (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002 during follicular and luteal phase respectively) compared to healthy peers. Lower levels of FVIII and FX during luteal phase may predispose women to the development of the menorrhagia - common complication of vWD. Women with vWD need more time to reach the peak thrombin concentration, while the latter still remains less than in healthy women. Higher levels of AT in vWD-affected females, compared to controls, may also contribute to the existing bleeding tendency in this cohort.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menorrhagia / physiopathology
  • Menstrual Cycle*
  • Thrombin / biosynthesis*
  • von Willebrand Diseases / physiopathology*


  • Thrombin