Objective: To explain individual differences in development, behavior, and cognition, most previous studies focused on projecting resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) based functional connectivity (FC) data into a low-dimensional space via linear dimensionality reduction techniques, followed by executing analysis operations. However, linear dimensionality analysis techniques may fail to capture the nonlinearity of brain neuroactivity. Moreover, besides resting-state FC, the FC based on task fMRI can be expected to provide complementary information. Motivated by these considerations, we nonlinearly fuse resting-state and task-based FC networks (FCNs) to seek a better representation in this paper.
Methods: We propose a framework based on alternating diffusion map (ADM), which extracts geometry-preserving low-dimensional embeddings that successfully parameterize the intrinsic variables driving the phenomenon of interest. Specifically, we first separately build resting-state and task-based FCNs by symmetric positive definite matrices using sparse inverse covariance estimation for each subject, and then utilize the ADM to fuse them in order to extract significant low-dimensional embeddings, which are used as fingerprints to identify individuals.
Results: The proposed framework is validated on the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort data, where we conduct extensive experimental study on resting-state and fractal n-back task fMRI for the classification of intelligence quotient (IQ). The fusion of resting-state and n-back task fMRI by the proposed framework achieves better classification accuracy than any single fMRI, and the proposed framework is shown to outperform several other data fusion methods.
Conclusion and significance: To our knowledge, this paper is the first to demonstrate a successful extension of the ADM to fuse resting-state and task-based fMRI data for accurate prediction of IQ.