Purpose: To evaluate for differences in neurodevelopmental outcomes at 30 months of age for children enrolled in the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) based on the presence of hydrocephalus and cerebral shunts.
Methods: Children with no hydrocephalus (N= 27), children with shunted hydrocephalus (N= 108), and children with unshunted hydrocephalus (N= 36) were compared at 30 months of age on the Bayley II Mental and Psychomotor Indices, the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 and the Preschool Language Scale, 4th edition. Generalized linear models were used to adjust for factors significantly different between the groups at baseline. Additional analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of the severity of hydrocephalus.
Results: In unadjusted comparisons, statistically significant differences were noted between the three groups on the Peabody Gross Motor Quotient and thus the Total Motor Quotient. After adjustment, no statistically significant differences were identified. In subanalyses, children with more severe hydrocephalus fared worse on the Peabody Fine Motor Quotient (median 88 versus 94, p= 0.005), the Total Motor Quotient (median 70 versus 73, p= 0.02) and both Preschool Language Scale subtests (auditory comprehension: median 93 versus 104, p= 0.02 and expressive communication: median 95 versus 104.5, p= 0.01) and thus the total score (median 92 versus 105, p= 0.004). These results remained significant in the multivariable adjusted model.
Conclusion: No neurodevelopmental differences were noted with children enrolled in MOMS across the three hydrocephalus/shunt groups, although severity of hydrocephalus was associated with poorer outcomes.
Keywords: Hydrocephalus; myelomeningocele; neurodevelopmental; ventriculoperitoneal shunt.