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, 41 (4), 781-789

Association Between HPV Infection and Prostate Cancer in a Mexican Population

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Association Between HPV Infection and Prostate Cancer in a Mexican Population

Olivia Medel-Flores et al. Genet Mol Biol.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between prostate cancer (PCa) and Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the Mexican population. We studied 356 paraffin-embedded tissues from unrelated Mexican men with PCa or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), with the latter serving as control. HPV detection was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using universal primers, and viral genotypes were detected using sequencing or multiplex PCR. Light microscopy analyses enabled the identification of koilocytes in samples subsequently analyzed for HPV detection by in situ PCR and for p16-INK4A expression by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that high risk- (HR) HPVs were detected in 37/189 (19.6%) PCa specimens compared to 16/167 (9.6%) of BHP specimens (odds ratio 2.3; 95% CI= 1.2 to 4.3; p=0.01). These data suggest HR-HPV may play a role in PCa. HPV 52 and 58 were the most frequent genotypes (33 and 17%, respectively) detected in the population studied. Koilocytes were detected in all in situ PCR-HPV-positive samples, representing a pathognomonic feature of infection, and we observed the overexpression of p16-INK4A in HPV-positive samples compared to HPV-negative samples, indirectly suggesting the presence of HR-HPV E7 oncoprotein. These results suggest that HPV infection plays an important role in prostate cancer development.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. HPV genotypes detected in this study. (A) Electrophoresis of PCR products. Lane 1: positive control (HPV genotypes detected), lane 2: negative control (no added DNA), lanes 3 and 4: representative samples. (B) HPV genotypes frequency in biological samples analyzed.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Histopathological and molecular analysis of prostate cancer tissues. (A) Koilocytes were observed in several HPV-infected prostate cancer tissues. Arrows indicate the koilocytes in a representative image. (B) In situ HR-HPV detection. HR-HPV E6/E7 DNA was detected in prostate cancer sections employing in situ PCR as indicated in the Materials and Methods. The signal was mainly nuclear (indicated by empty arrows). Magnification: 10× and 40×. (C) Solid arrows indicate a positive signal of HPV DNA amplification in koilocytes (K). Magnification: 63×. The numbers indicate the control number of each patient. Negative control: no forward primers were added for in situ PCR.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Immunohistochemical detection of p16INK4A in prostate cancer. A strong positive (empty arrows) signal of p16INK4A protein was detected in HPV-positive tissues compared with HPV-negative [HPV(-)] tissues. Solid arrows indicate a positive signal of p16INK4A in koilocytes (K). Magnification: 40×. The numbers indicate the control number of each patient.

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